The Thorny Comma Issue, Part 2

Thirteen Basic Rules of Using Commas (Ohanenye)

  1.  Before a conjunction (FANBOYS—for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) to separate two independent sentences/clauses: Angela received a pay raise, so she did her famous happy dance.
  2. To separate items in a series of three or more words: The snacks included soda, pretzels, and chips. (The Oxford Comma comes before the “and”.)
  3. To separate adjectives of equal rank: You have made a simple, polite request.
  4. To separate a series of adjectives before the noun it modifies (except the last adjective): An efficient, helpful, and interesting guide led our party on the tour.
  5. After an introductory word, phrase, or clause: Well, I need a minute to decide. Yes, my brother can play the harmonica very well.
  6. To set off parenthetical expressions, which is a word or phrase not essential to the rest of the sentence: Therefore, I believe, however, on the other hand. Consequently, but fearing retribution, James notified us of his decision.
  7. To set off nonessential expressions or appositives: Confucius, a Chinese thinker, taught the importance of tradition. The teacher, a rebel with a cause, decided to challenge the status quo.
  8. To set off dates and geographic names: Tom was born in Marietta, Georgia.  He will graduate from college on May 12, 2024.
  9. After each item in an address after the name, street, and city: She is writing her friend, Suze Jones of 32 Happy Trail, Jubilant, Mississippi 30127. (Notice that no comma separates the state from the zip code.)
  10. When an address is written on an envelope, only use a comma after the city:

Suze Jones

32 Happy Trail

Jubilant, Mississippi 30127

11. In a salutation in a personal letter and after the closing in all letters: Salutation–Dear Ann,








12. With numbers of more than three digits and adding a comma after every 3rd digit counting from the right to the left: 103,908 or 990,973,873 or 98,771

13. To set off a direct quotation from the rest of the sentence: Gordon murmured with a yawn, “This is a dull movie.”


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The Thorny Comma Issue: Part 1

Don’t you just hate it when people who have no idea how to use commas correct you?

This happens a few times, and I am always annoyed. I teach writing. I am a writing coach; therefore, it behooves me to know punctuation marks.

What appears below are the functions of commas I have known since time immemorial. For the benefit of sounding objective, I borrowed the clamoring of the correct uses of commas from an outside source:

Five of the Most Common Comma Uses

Introductory Words

Let’s start at the very beginning. When starting a sentence with a dependent clause or introductory word, use a comma.

No, I don’t want any pie.

On Tuesday, Mark is coming over.

Depending on the weather, we’re going to the beach.

Commas can often indicate a short pause, and that’s what’s happening here. The comma also subtly signals to the reader that the introductory part of the sentence is over.

A comma here also helps avoid confusion. Take the sentence, “After eating, my brother went home.” Without the comma, the sentence has an awkward start with “After eating my brother…” Luckily, the comma indicates the brother left.

Comma Splice

When a comma connects two independent clauses with no coordinating conjunction in between, it’s called a “comma splice.”

Diana went to the movies, she bought popcorn.

The comma separates the two halves of the sentence, but each of these halves could stand independently. For example, “Diana went to the movies” and “She bought popcorn;” each makes grammatical sense as a statement by itself. That means they don’t need to be linked together by the comma.

There are several ways to fix a comma splice. The first way is by adding a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so):

Diana went to the movies, and she bought popcorn.

The comma could be changed to a semicolon:

Diana went to the movies; she bought popcorn.

Finally, each independent clause could be its own sentence:

Diana went to the moviesShe bought popcorn.

Oxford Comma

Also known as the “serial comma,” the Oxford comma is the sometimes-optional final comma in a list of things. For example, the comma after “milk” in the below sentence:

Gordon bought bread, milk, and eggs at the grocery store.

Some style guides insist on the Oxford comma, and others think it’s no big deal. But, neglecting to use it can lead to some serious misunderstandings.

I’m having breakfast with my parents, Beyonce and Jay-Z.

The lack of an Oxford comma in this sentence makes its meaning ambiguous. Is the speaker having breakfast with four people — Mom, Dad, Beyonce, and Jay-Z? Or are their parents actually Beyonce and Jay-Z? Inquiring minds want to know. A final comma in the series would clear up the confusion.


No, this rule doesn’t have anything to do with Star Wars or Marvel fandoms. “FANBOYS” is a mnemonic device. It stands for For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, and So. These are the seven coordinating conjunctions. When joining two independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction, use a comma.

I played basketball, but I could never win a gold medal.

The trap door opened, and I fell to the ground.

That snake is creepy, so I don’t want to hold it.

Remember, the comma comes between two independent clauses. That means these two parts of the sentence could stand on their own. “I played basketball” and “I could never win a gold medal” could make sense as independent statements. The coordinating conjunction “but” along with the comma helps glue them together into one streamlined thought.

Be on the lookout for fake FANBOYS like “however,” “therefore,” and “moreover.” These conjunctions usually require a semicolon when they join two independent clauses.

Quotation Marks

Whether quoting the President of the United States or your next-door neighbor, commas and quotation marks can be confusing. The rule here is straightforward. In American English, commas go inside the quotation mark:

“Life is what happens when you’re busy making other plans,” said John Lennon.

The rule is slightly different in British English — put commas outside the quotation marks across the pond. And don’t forget to drive on the left side of the road.

Featured photo credit: fizkes/ iStock